If you are a health professional, click here to find out more about Neuroprotective Developmental Care (NDC) and our online education programs, which have been developed out of the research publications detailed below. NDC accreditation allows you to be locateable on our Find an NDC accredited practitioner page wherever you are in the world, available to parents who are searching for our innovative, evidence-based, attachment-promoting, breastfeeding-sensitive, care. If you are a parent who wishes to access our Possums programs for parents, developed out of the NDC evidence-base below, please click here

Research publications: Neuroprotective Developmental Care (NDC or the Possums programs) by domain - sleep, breastfeeding, cry-fuss, moodDownload the Research publications NDC by domain

Research publications: Neuroprotective Developmental Care (NDC or the Possums programs) by date of publication


Ozturk M, Boran P, Ersu R, Peker Y. Possums-based parental education for infant sleep: cued care resulting in sustained breastfeedingEuropean Journal of Pediatrics. 2021:doi: 10.1007/s00431-00021-03942-00432.
Whittingham K, Palmer C, Douglas PS, Creedy DK, Sheffield J. Evaluating the 'Possums' health professional training in parent-infant sleep. Infant Mental Health Journal. 2020:doi:10.1002/imhj.21885.
Ball H, Taylor CE, Thomas V, Douglas PS, Sleep Baby and You Working Group. Development and evaluation of ‘Sleep, Baby & You’ - an approach to supporting parental well-being and responsive infant caregiving. Plos One. 2020;15(8): e0237240

Douglas, Pamela. Pre-emptive intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder: theoretical foundations and clinical translation. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience.

Douglas P S. Part 1 - Babies crying out for help. The Medical Republic. 4 February 2019: 26-28.

Douglas P S. Part 2 - Making sense of baby's crying and fussing. The Medical Republic. 16 February 2019: 26-28.

Douglas P S. Part 3 - Crying babies: feeding, sleeping, and sensory needs. The Medical Republic. 4 March 2019:26-28.

Douglas P S. The Possums Sleep Program: supporting easy, healthy parent-infant sleep. International Journal of Birth and Parent Information. 2018; 6(1):13-16.

Ball H, Douglas PS, Whittingham K, Kulasinghe K, Hill PS. The Possums Infant Sleep Program: parents' perspectives on a novel parent-infant sleep intervention in Australia. Sleep Health. 2018;4 (6):519-526.

Douglas PS, Cameron A, Cichero J, Geddes DT, Hill PS, Kapoor V, et al. Australian Collaboration for Infant Oral Research (ACIOR) Position Statement 1: Upper lip-tie, buccal ties, and the role of frenotomy in infants Australasian Dental Practice. 2018;Jan/Feb 144-146. 

Kapoor V, Douglas PS, Hill PS, Walsh L, Tennant M. Frenotomy for tongue-tie in Australian children (2006-2016): an increasing problem. MJA. 2018:88-89.

Douglas PS, Geddes DB. Practice-based interpretation of ultrasound studies leads the way to less pharmaceutical and surgical intervention for breastfeeding babies and more effective clinical support. Midwifery. 2018;58:145–155.

Douglas PS. Essays on health: Australia is failing new parents with conflicting advice - it's urgent we get it right. The Conversation. 2017;12 September

Douglas PS. Babies and sleep: a matter of choice. MJA Insight. 2017;34

Douglas PS. Special Edition: Tongue-tie Expert Roundtable. Clinical Lactation. 2017;8(3):87-131.

Douglas PS. Untangling the tongue-tie epidemic. Medical Republic. 2017;1 September

Douglas PS, Keogh R. Gestalt breastfeeding: helping mothers and infants optimise positional stability and intra-oral breast tissue volume for effective, pain-free milk transfer. Journal of Human Lactation. 2017;33(3):509–518. 

Douglas PS. Making sense of studies which claim benefits of frenotomy in the absence of classic tongue-tie Journal of Human Lactation. 2017;33(3):519–523. 

Wattis L, Kam R, Douglas PS. Three experienced lactation consultants reflect on the oral ties phenomenon. Breastfeeding Review.  2017;25(1):9-15. 

Douglas, P S. Conclusions of Ghaheri’s study that laser surgery for posterior tongue and lip ties improve breastfeeding are not substantiated. Breastfeeding Medicine. 2017;12(3):180-181. 

Whittingham K, Douglas, Pamela S. 'Possums': building contextual behavioural science into an innovative evidence-based approach to parenting support in early life. In: Kirkaldy B, editor. Psychotherapy in parenthood and beyond. Turin: Edizioni Minerva Medica; 2016. p. 43-56. 

Douglas, Pamela S. Response to 'Behavioural management of infant sleep problems under 6 months: what works?'. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 2016;37:520-521. 

Douglas, Pamela S. Deep cuts under babies' tongues are unlikely to solve breastfeeding problems. The Conversation, 3 March 2016.

Douglas, Pamela S. Tongues tied about tongue-tie. Griffith Review Online, vol 51. 2 March 2016  

Douglas, Pamela. High level evidence does not support first wave behavioural approaches to infant sleep. Sleep Medicine Reviews 2015:doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2015.10.007 

Williams O, Mutch A, Douglas PS, Boyle F, Hill PS. Proposed changes to Medicare: undermining equity and outcomes in Australian primary health care? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 2015:doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12348. 

Douglas PS, Whittingham K. Response to 'Sleeping like a baby? Infant sleep impact on care givers and current controversies'. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2015;51:234.

Whittingham K, Douglas P. Optimising parent-infant sleep in the first 6 months: a new paradigm. Infant Mental Health Journal. 2014;35:614-623.

Douglas P. Diagnosing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease or lactose intolerance in babies who cry alot in the first few months overlooks feeding problems. J Paediatr Child Health. 2013;49:e252-256. 

Douglas P, Hill PS. Behavioural sleep interventions in the first six months of life do not improve outcomes for mothers or infants: a systematic review. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2013;34:497–507. 

Douglas P, Shirley B. How to Treat: The Crying Baby. Australian Doctor. 2013; 24 May 31-38. (Please ignore the questions and answers at the end of this article, as they were not written by the authors and unfortunately the answers have inaccuracies!)   

Douglas PS, Hill PS. A neurobiological model for cry-fuss problems in the first three to four months of life. Med Hypotheses. 2013;81:816-822.. 

Douglas PS. Re-thinking 'posterior' tongue-tie. Breastfeed Med. 2013;8(6):1-4. 

Douglas P, Miller Y, Bucetti A, Hill PS, Creedy D. Preliminary evaluation of a primary care intervention for cry-fuss behaviours in the first three to four months of life ("The Possums Approach"): effects on cry-fuss behaviours and maternal mood. Australian Journal of Primary Health. 2013; 18:332-338. 

Douglas P, Mares R, Hill P. Interdisciplinary perspectives on the management of the unsettled baby: key strategies for improved outcomes. Australian Journal of Primary Health. 2012;18:332-338. 

Douglas PS, Hill PS. The crying baby: what approach? Curr Opin Pediatr. 2011;23:523-529. 

Douglas P, Hill P. Managing infants who cry excessively in the first few months of life. BMJ. 2011;343:d7772. 

Douglas P. The rise and fall of infant reflux. In: Finkel E, editor. The Best Australian Science Writing 2012. Sydney: New South 2011. p. 62-78. Originally published in Griffith Review. 2011;32:241-254. 

Douglas PS, Hill PS, Brodribb W. The unsettled baby: how complexity science helps. Arch Dis Child. 2011;96:793-797.
Douglas P, Hiscock H. The unsettled baby: crying out for an integrated, multidisciplinary, primary care intervention. Med J Aust. 2010;193:533-536. 

Douglas PS. Excessive crying and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in infants: misalignment of biology and culture. Med Hypotheses. 2005;64:887-898.